Our Teaching and Learning Programs use The Abeka & Creative Curriculum Programs to Assist and Enhance the Growth & Development of Young Children
- Ages: Birth through 11 months (up to 1 year old) • Subcategories: • 0-3 months • 4-7 months • 8-11 months
- Some infants are very quiet and sleep a lot. Other infants are very active.
- Infants have needs and feelings. They look and act differently. Let each infant be himself or herself. Adapt to each infant’s behavior instead of pushing the infant to be more like other infants.
- Infants cannot control their body movements. Thier nervous system is not fully developed. Most of their movements are reflexes.
- During the first months, infants can see clearly objects that are about 10 inches away from their faces.
- By six months, their vision is more fully developed.
- By four months, most babies have some control of their muscles and nervous system. They can sit with support, hold their head up for short periods of time, and can roll from their side to their stomach. By five months, most babies can roll over.
- They begin to develop trust as their parents or caregivers meet their needs such as changing their diapers when needed, feeding them when they are hungry, and holding them when they cry.
- When frightened, infants cry and look surprised and afraid. They cry to express anger, pain and hunger. It is their way of communicating. They are easily excited or upset. They need to be cradled and comforted.
- It seems as if they cannot tell where their bodies end and someone else’s begins.
- Infants smile in response to a pleasant sound or a full stomach. At about six weeks, they smile in response to someone else. By four months, they smile broadly, laugh when pleased, and learn to recognize faces and voices of parents.
- Infants babble, coo and gurgle. They study their hands and feet. They turn to locate the source of sounds. Infants can focus on and follow moving objects with their eyes. They explore things with their mouths. They put anything they can hold into their mouths. They cry in different ways to express hunger, anger and pain. They forget about objects that they cannot see.
- Infants still take a nap in the morning and afternoon. They start to eat and sleep at regular times. They eat three meals a day and drink from bottles at various times.
- They start using a cup and a spoon to feed themselves. Infants can sit alone. They crawl with their stomach touching the floor, and they creep on their hands and knees.
- By eight months, they can reach for and hold objects. They can pick up objects with their thumb and forefinger and let objects go (drop things). They start to throw things. They pull up to stand, they stand holding onto furniture, and they can walk when led.
- By the time they are 12 months old, most babies can weigh three times what they weighed at birth and gain about an inch per month in length. The average infant at one year may be between 26–30 inches long.
- Infants respond when you say their name. They begin to fear strangers. They begin to fear being left by their parents. They get angry and frustrated when their needs are not met in a reasonable amount of time. Infants will talk to themselves in front of a mirror.
- They begin to learn what is and is not allowed. Eye contact begins to replace some of the physical contact that younger infants seek.
- Infants wave bye-bye and play pat-a-cake. They respond to simple directions. They look for things not in sight. Infants make sounds like “dada” and “mama.” They begin to pretend by acting out familiar activities. They make sounds that can be understood by people who know them well. They repeat actions that cause a response such as when given a rattle, they will shake it and laugh.
- By 12 months, many infants speak their first understandable words.
- Characterized by much growth and change, mood swings and some negativity
- Long on will and short on skill. This is why they are often frustrated and “misbehave”
- Bursting with energy and ideas need to explore their environment
- Independent, and yet, they are still very dependent
- Very concerned with their own needs and ideas. This is why we cannot expect them to share
- Get frustrated because they do not have the language skills to express themselves
- Often have difficulty separating themselves from their parents
- Begin to take an interest in being toilet trained
Three and four-year-old children are often called preschoolers.
- Most children are toilet trained, have developed verbal skills, are continuing to be more independent, and are taking an active interest in the world around them.
- Preschool children want to touch, taste, smell, hear, and test things for themselves.
- They are eager to learn and learn by experiencing and by doing.
- They learn from their play.
- They are busy developing skills, using language, and struggling to gain inner control.
- They want to establish themselves as separate from their parents.
- They are more independent than toddlers. They can express their needs since they have greater command of language.
- Common fears often develop during the preschool years which include new places and experiences and separation from parents and other important people.
- You can expect the preschool child to test you over and over again. He or she might use forbidden words and might act very silly. Sharing may still be difficult.
- Because of their developing imaginations and rich fantasy lives, they may have trouble telling fantasy from reality.They may also talk about imaginary friends.
- Preschoolers need clear and simple rules so that they know the boundaries of acceptable behavior.
- Physical development for three year olds involve riding tricyles, catching a ball, standing on one foot, building block towers, walking on tip toes, jumping horizontally, handling small objects such as puzzles, or peg boards. They draw or paint in circles or horizontal motions, such as fingerpainting.
- They grow about 3 inches taller in a year
- They need to know clear and consistent rules and what the consequences for breaking them are.
- They enjoy dramatic play with other children. Their emotions are usually extreme and short-lived
- They need indoor and outdoor space and a balance between active and quiet play.
- Their attention span is a little longer so they can participate in group activities.
- Four year olds
- They like to run on tip toes, gallop, skip, hop on one foot and pump themselves on a swing. They throw a ball overhand and have more small muscle control.
- They can make representational pictures (for example, pictures of flowers, people, etc.)
- They like unzipping, unsnapping, unbuttoning clothes, and dressing themselves. They like lacing their own shoes.
- They can cut on a line with scissors, make designs and write crude letters. They are very active and aggressive in their play.
- They sometimes have imaginary friends. They tend to brag and be bossy. They have very active imaginations. They need to feel important and worthwhile.
- They can be aggressive but want friends and enjoy being with other children.
- They enjoy pretending to be important adults such as mom, dad, nurse, doctor, mail carrier, police officer. They appreciate praise for their achievements.
- They need opportunities to feel more freedom and independence. They are learning to take turns and to share. Games and other activities can help them learn about taking turns.
- They ask lots of questions, including “how” and “why” questions. They are very talkative. Their language includes silly words and profanity.
- They enjoy serious discussions. They should understand some basic concepts such as number, size, weight, color, texture, distance, time and position. Their classification skills and reasoning ability are developing.
Second New St. Paul Baptist Church Child Development Center, 2400 Franklin Street, N.E. Washington, DC 20018.